Strawberry – Fragaria ? ananassa

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The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria ? ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria (collectively known as the strawberries). It is cultivated worldwide for its fruit. The fruit (which is not a botanical berry, but an aggregate accessory fruit) is widely appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. It is consumed in large quantities, either fresh or in such prepared foods as preserves, fruit juice, pies, ice creams, milkshakes, and chocolates. Artificial strawberry flavorings and aromas are also widely used in many products like lip gloss, candy, hand sanitizers, perfume, and many others.

To maintain top quality, berries are harvested at least every other day. The berries are picked with the caps still attached and with at least half an inch of stem left. Strawberries need to remain on the plant to fully ripen because they do not continue to ripen after being picked. Rotted and overripe berries are removed to minimize insect and disease problems.

Around 200 species of pests are known to attack strawberries both directly and indirectly. These pests include slugs, moths, fruit flies, chafers, strawberry root weevils, strawberry thrips, strawberry sap beetles, strawberry crown moth, mites, aphids, and others. The caterpillars of a number of species of Lepidoptera feed on strawberry plants.

The amounts of pesticides required for industrial production of strawberries (?140?kg in California per acre) have led to the strawberry leading the list of EWG’s “Dirty Dozen” of pesticide-contaminated produce.

Strawberry plants can fall victim to a number of diseases. The leaves may be infected by powdery mildew, leaf spot (caused by the fungus Sphaerella fragariae), leaf blight (caused by the fungus Phomopsis obscurans), and by a variety of slime molds. The crown and roots may fall victim to red stele, verticillium wilt, black root rot, and nematodes. The fruits are subject to damage from gray mold, rhizopus rot, and leather rot. To prevent root-rotting, strawberries should be planted every four to five years in a new bed, at a different site.

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Nutritional value per 100?g (3.5?oz)
Energy 136?kJ (33?kcal)
?
Carbohydrates
7.68 g
Sugars 4.89 g
Dietary fiber 2 g
?
Fat
0.3 g
?
Protein
0.67 g
?
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(2%)

0.024 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)

0.022 mg

Niacin (B3)
(3%)

0.386 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5)
(3%)

0.125 mg

Vitamin B6
(4%)

0.047 mg

Folate (B9)
(6%)

24 ?g

Choline
(1%)

5.7 mg

Vitamin C
(71%)

58.8 mg

Vitamin E
(2%)

0.29 mg

Vitamin K
(2%)

2.2 ?g

?
Minerals
Calcium
(2%)

16 mg

Iron
(3%)

0.41 mg

Magnesium
(4%)

13 mg

Manganese
(18%)

0.386 mg

Phosphorus
(3%)

24 mg

Potassium
(3%)

153 mg

Sodium
(0%)

1 mg

Zinc
(1%)

0.14 mg

?
Other constituents
Water 90.95 g
Fluoride 4.4 ?g

  • Units
  • ?g = micrograms?? mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US?recommendations for adults.

Source: USDA Nutrient Database

One serving (100?g; see Table) of strawberries contains approximately 33 kilocalories, is an excellent source of vitamin C, a good source of manganese, and provides several other vitamins and dietary minerals in lesser amounts.

Strawberries contain a modest amount of essential unsaturated fatty acids in the achene (seed) oil.